Migration or transfer services are often free or offered at a reasonable fee. These services help move your existing site to the new hosting provider. They can save a huge amount of hassle. Just remember that the migration process is often automated, and may fit in with the host's processes and needs rather than yours. Not everything may migrate, and you may find the organization of the newly migrated site makes for harder maintenance in the long run.
WordPress being as big as it is, chances are, you are probably using it for whatever online project you are running or plan to launch. If that is the case, Bluehost is one of the best web hosting providers for you. However, you do not have to limit yourself in any way, shape or form. You can use whatever other CMS and still be able to rule the online world with a fantastic web hosting service for a personal website like Bluehost is. Do what feels right for you and your website and Bluehost will take care of all the rest.
As far as some of the features go, A Small Orange is loaded with a bunch. The Tiny package gives you 500 MB of storage and 5 GB of bandwidth. Every ASO plan uses SSD servers and the best software on the market for ensuring amazing page performance. Included is also cPanel, webmail and Weebly site builder. When live in the online space, your website will behave like any other highly respectable site you looked up to.

SiteGround developed several in-house innovations that put them ahead in this market, including a unique technology to actively monitor their servers, preventing downtime in real time, and custom software for live chat and support ticketing. These examples of going the extra mile for the user have resulted in 99.996% uptime annually and exceptional customer support around the clock. Read our review for more on why SiteGround is a stellar choice for small business hosting.

If you have purchased domain names that you no longer need, you can sell them through Namecheap. When you are ready to sell, you can list your domain in our Marketplace for a fixed price. We will add your domains to our searchable list, visited by thousands of people every day. When you buy domain names from Namecheap, we guarantee the best available support from managing, to selling, to renewals. 

If you buy multiple domain names on a regular basis, then we also encourage you to check out our Discount Domain Club. DDC gives you some of the lowest domain prices available – without waiting for a sale or offer to be sent your way. Club members can save up to 60% everyday on domain registration prices, and they get free access to our CashParking® (Premium plan), free membership to GoDaddy Auctions, and reduced pricing on our Domain Broker Service. The benefits add up quickly and make our already cheap domains even more economical.

In housing terms, VPS hosting is like renting your own apartment in a larger building. You're much more isolated than in the roommate situation mentioned above; it's still possible that a neighboring apartment could causes annoyance for you, but far less likely. In web hosting terms, Site A's traffic surge won't have nearly as much impact on Site B or Site C. As you'd expect, VPS hosting costs more than shared hosting. You'll pay roughly $20 to $60 per month.
To sweeten the deal, all of InMotion's plans come with a ton of great free features that other services might charge extra for – think malware and DDoS protection, basic backups, 'spam-safe' email and a WordPress-based website builder (if you're looking at WordPress options specifically, take a look at our dedicated guide to the best WordPress hosting services).
One stop shopping for getting a website up and running - get the name, register it, build the site and they host it, all in one spot. The builder tool is amazingly easy to use - so much easier than any of the others I have used! You get to do all the fun parts, and they take care of all the drudgery in the background. Great help videos and articles, and their phone customer support is just amazing - really nice peeps who know what they are doing, and take the time to make sure your tangles are straightened. Brilliant all the way around.
If you're planning on selling a product, look for a web host that offers a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate, because it encrypts the data between the customer's browser and web host to safeguard purchasing information. You're probably familiar with SSL; it's the green padlock that appears in your web browser's address bar as you visit an online financial institution or retail outlet. A few companies toss in a SSL certificate free of charge; others may charge you roughly $100 per year for that extra security layer.
To revisit a familiar topic – it’s human nature to look for the best deal and it doesn’t get much better than free. That’s why the web hosting industry has jumped hard on the idea and run with it, becoming so jampacked with cheap and low cost options dangled in front of consumers like some kind of irresistible bait that it’s hard to sort them all out.
SiteGround has the best support and good performance but all that comes with a price (high renewal cost). The cheapest plan starts at $3.95/mo (with the 12-month commitment) and renews at $11.95/mo. You can host 1 website and the plan includes 10GB SSD storage, unmetered bandwidth, and free SSL. Your purchase is backed by the 30-day money-back guarantee.
Paid web hosting services or meilleur hébergement web certainly have their place in the world, but the reality is that not everyone who wants to put something online has grand plans to challenge Amazon in a face-to-face ecommerce retail death match. Some of us have more modest intentions and just want a place to conduct email marketing campaigns, dump thoughts or share stuff quickly and without a lot of hassle.
In particular, Web Hosting Hub uses BoldGrid as a site builder. BoldGrid is actually an add-on to WordPress, so there's no lock-in. This overcomes the major problem of most site builders: you're locked into that host and that tool, often requiring you to completely rebuild your site if you want to expand. By using a WordPress-based solution, all of the rather considerable power of WordPress is available for future expansion.
ASO has this cool little tool which helps you pick the plan. By answering a few questions, they suggest you the ideal plan for your page. You can play around with different possibilities and figure out what would work best for you. However, you can always get in touch with their expert stuff for additional assistance. Together, you will do extraordinary things.

Welcome to the CNET 2020 directory of web hosting services. In this directory, we'll look at a few of the best web hosting providers like Bluehost, A2Hosting, Hostinger, DreamHost, HostGator, InMotion Hosting and more. In this evaluation of the best web hosting providers, we're featuring commercial web hosting companies that offer WordPress, VPS, shared hosting and many more web hosting services, along with a variety of annual and monthly plans.     
When you build a website, you want visitors to come and see what you've done. To get them there, you need a unique domain name that connects to your sites servers. Domain name registration is required to ensure that no one else in the world can claim ownership of your web site's address and to make finding your website simple. Find your one of a kind domain name.
With a web hosting plan from HostPapa, you’ll get a dedicated, professional IT team, without the cost! The Papa Squad is ready to tackle any of your web hosting issues, and we’re ready to help 24/7. The Papa Squad are technical customer service experts with the knowledge and experience to help you solve any web hosting challenge that your website may face. No matter how many visitors, the amount of traffic or the number of orders your website receives, we’re here to make sure your web hosting solution can handle it all.
Bluehost has been at or near the top of the shared hosting world for a long time, with a well-deserved reputation for quality infrastructure and customer support that is actually inclined to help (when they’re online). In our hosting tests, Bluehost ranked near the top with in speed and performance – everything you would expect from an industry leader.
An ICANN-accredited domain registrar and a trusted hosting provider (included in our list of best WP hosting companies) DreamHost is proud of its 1.5 million sites using their services. As a true and dedicated domain provider, they offer 400+ domain extensions including general TLDs, new extensions and well as country-specific extensions. It offers brandable and attractive domain names at the cost-effective price for the aspiring businesses. Not just that, they offer various sales and discount offers to inspire new customers.
Shared hosting is web hosting in which the provider houses multiple sites on a single server. For example, Site A shares the same server with Site B, Site C, Site D, and Site E. The upside is that the multiple sites share the server cost, so shared web hosting is generally very inexpensive. In fact, you can find an option for less than $10 per month.
But, again, operationally it's quite strong. 24/7/365 customer support is available not only by live chat and email, but by phone. It offers free site migrations with some dedicated attention paid to making a transfer as smooth as possible. And, if you're willing to go for one of the higher-end plans, the company has put some serious attention into performance and caching.
With more than 8 million domains under their wing, HostGator is ideal for a personal website. Every hosting package has a 99.9% uptime guarantee and allows you a refund within 45 days. Every step you make towards a successful launch of your page, you always have HostGator’s support at your service. It will come especially hand if you are new in the business and are setting up your very first page. Even if you have little or zero prior experience, prepare to surprise yourself by how much you can accomplish on your own.
At any time of the day and at any location in the world, iPage guarantees your website to be live and be of benefit. Not only for you but everyone who visits it, too. Are you ready to start with a fantastic and cheap web hosting for a personal website service? What you get in return for a low monthly payment will make you feel like that you owe them something.
By far the best Minecraft hosting I've used. Getting things up and running is generally very quick (having used them for two different servers) and anytime I have had issues of any kind the support staff has been very helpful in their discord. Harvey especially has been super helpful from the support team. All in all they've been awesome for me and issues are rare (and get resolved quickly when the pop up!).
Every new page owner will be impressed by the grand web hosting for a personal website provider, SiteGround. Ideal for sites for creatives and even small businesses. SiteGround offers three shared hosting plans, StartUp, GrowBig and GoGeek. These are not the cheapest on the market, however, they aim to offer you premium features even when it comes to the entry level package.
Think of the name you want to register. The answer is typically your company or website name. It is best to keep your domain name short and easy to understand. Say it out loud, and make sure it sounds great. Next, search to see if it is available. If the name you desire is taken with the .com top-level domain, there are hundreds of others available. Finally, add the top choices to your cart and complete the domain registration.
With more than 2 million websites using BH, you know you are safe with the service. They offer you all there is you need, plus a whole bunch of other features. And whenever your website takes off and grows beyond expectation, you can instantly upgrade to a larger plan and keep your site running continuously. FYI, before you even begin, you would need a domain name. If you still do not have one, Bluehost offers you one for free. I told you these guys take care of your project in its entirety.
Toby Sembower built and hosted his first website in 1998, when the Internet was often annoyingly referred to as "the information super-highway." Toby is the first to admit that site was plain terrible. Nonetheless, it piqued his interest in the Web, and he would go on to build, own, and operate (and host externally) sites totaling 100+ million visits on a variety of subject matters. Today Toby is CEO at Digital Brands Inc., a fast-growing firm that owns and operates a number of popular web properties. 

You gain the most web-building functionality if you create a self-hosted site. This typically involves transfering the free WordPress CMS to server or signing up for a web host's optimized WordPress plan. With an optimized plan, the host automatically handles backend stuff, so you don't have to worry about updating the plug-ins and CMS, and enabling automatic backups. In these instances, the WordPress environment typically comes pre-installed on the server.
If you're not sure of the type of hosting your business needs, you might want to start small, with shared Web hosting. You can always graduate to a more robust, feature-rich package of, say, VPS hosting or even dedicated hosting in the future. Unfortunately, some hosts don't offer all hosting types. Consider how much you expect to grow your website, and how soon, before you commit to anything longer than a one-year plan. It's worth spending the time up front to make sure that the host you select with is able to provide the growth you envision for your site, as switching web hosting providers midstream is not a trivial undertaking.
Low-cost domain names offer an easy way to get online without breaking the bank in the process. Whether you’re starting a website for your business or just buying your kid’s domain name, the right domain lays the foundation for a great website and an engaging online presence. With GoDaddy, you can register domains for as low as C$1.31. You can even snag a free domain with one of our website hosting plans. It doesn’t get any cheaper – or any better – than that. In other words, the price is right. And if you’re smart about SEO, email marketing, and the rest of your online presence, the traffic and name recognition of your website can be, too.
Why? Because word of mouth only gets you so far in the internet era. People discover new businesses—even local business—via Bing, Google, and Yahoo. The days when they'd just look you up in the yellow pages are long gone. If you don't have a sharable website address, your chances of building online word of mouth via social networking plummet, too. In other words, no website, no discoverability, no money. Of course, web hosting isn't just for businesses. You may want to host a personal website or blog, too. Either way, the services here have you covered.
Whether I’m geeking out with Ryan, Laura, and the team, or sketching out server diagrams to explain the basics to my grandmother, talking about a career in web hosting is always a creative endeavor, and I love it. Hopefully, this guide has cleared up some of the common confusions of hosting services, and you’re ready to sign up with the web host that best fits your upcoming site needs.

If you're not sure of the type of hosting your business needs, you might want to start small, with shared Web hosting. You can always graduate to a more robust, feature-rich package of, say, VPS hosting or even dedicated hosting in the future. Unfortunately, some hosts don't offer all hosting types. Consider how much you expect to grow your website, and how soon, before you commit to anything longer than a one-year plan. It's worth spending the time up front to make sure that the host you select with is able to provide the growth you envision for your site, as switching web hosting providers midstream is not a trivial undertaking.


If you are entirely fresh to site building and hosting, it is 123 Reg which will serve you well in all aspects. From the ideal web hosting plan for your personal website all the way constructing one, they have you covered with everything. There are even step-by-step articles and videos available so you can comfortably do it all by yourself. Their support is available every hour of the day and each plan you pick comes with a 30-day money back guarantee. But these are just the pure basics what 123 Reg web hosting for a personal website treats you with. More goodies are yet to come.

In particular, Web Hosting Hub uses BoldGrid as a site builder. BoldGrid is actually an add-on to WordPress, so there's no lock-in. This overcomes the major problem of most site builders: you're locked into that host and that tool, often requiring you to completely rebuild your site if you want to expand. By using a WordPress-based solution, all of the rather considerable power of WordPress is available for future expansion.


When you need help, you can expect the best from us. For five years in a row, GoDaddy has won a Stevie Award for Customer Service. The international awards competition is based on Customer Net Promoter Scores (NPS), which consistently rank our customer care among the best on earth. In addition to phone support, we also offer an exhaustive collection of help articles on every conceivable topic.
Regarding business hosting, Cloudways is also able to handle business class web servers and even announced today staging capabilities that business, publishing, agencies and more app critical firms require for performance and testing. Support chat is also a big plus for wpengine who also has staging and good backup capabilities. Support response time is critical for business sites and the pricing is typically 3x per instance higher plus companies should always retain a specialists even with managed hosting partners.

If you have purchased domain names that you no longer need, you can sell them through Namecheap. When you are ready to sell, you can list your domain in our Marketplace for a fixed price. We will add your domains to our searchable list, visited by thousands of people every day. When you buy domain names from Namecheap, we guarantee the best available support from managing, to selling, to renewals.


The long-standing popularity of the GoDaddy is based on its commitment towards providing high-quality service and dedicated support to its customers. GoDaddy Help is the page from where you can contact support. They have a powerful community with a number of tutorials, question answers, and forum with dedicated contributors. Besides, you can contact them via phone and chat for instant support. Their support team is 24/7/365 available for help.
If you've ever been worried about the tremendous amount of power large data centers consume, you might want to sign up with Green Geeks. The "green" in the company's name reflects the Green Geeks' commitment to the environment. It purchases three times the energy it actually uses in wind energy credits, essentially putting energy back into the economy. The company does this through a form of renewable energy certificates, which, while a bit complicated, means that it's not just energy neutral, i's actually helping fuel the green energy economy.
At IONOS, we always strive to offer our products at competitive price levels - for all customers. However, due to the sheer size of our product portfolio, we cannot guarantee to have the best price available for all products, all the time. Instead, we focus on a selected range of domain extensions which are frequently sought after by our customers, such as a .com, and provide those domain names to you using a very aggressive price point.
SiteGround developed several in-house innovations that put them ahead in this market, including a unique technology to actively monitor their servers, preventing downtime in real time, and custom software for live chat and support ticketing. These examples of going the extra mile for the user have resulted in 99.996% uptime annually and exceptional customer support around the clock. Read our review for more on why SiteGround is a stellar choice for small business hosting.

ICANN stands for Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. It is a not-for-profit partnership of people from all over the world aimed at making the internet secure. It is responsible for managing and monitoring Domain Name System (DNS) so as to maintain domain name registration standards. Therefore, it is better to purchase a domain name from ICANN-accredited domain registrars.
Cloudways is, needless to say, a web hosting service which is focused on one thing only, cloud web hosting, hence the name. They offer a fully managed cloud hosting of which all plans have one fantastic feature: pay as you go. In other words, you only pay for the resources you need and nothing else. This makes it very user-friendly, for everyone to benefit from. Being the type of a hosting provider which focuses only on managed cloud hosting platform, it makes them one of the best at what they do. If you are looking for something else, Cloudways is not the host to go with.
A Content Distribution Network (CDN) is a network of servers distributed geographically. The purpose of a CDN is to deliver content on the internet much faster. If a user in Toronto is trying to access your website, the closest server to them will take care of this. But someone coming to your website from Sydney, Australia, will be catered to by a server closest to them. The main host server holds your website content, and all the other servers have a cached version each.
Bluehost (established in 1996) is the most reliable beginner-friendly web hosting out there. The cheapest plan starts from just $2.75/mo (if you pay for 36-month in advance), renewals start at $7.99/mo. With the basic plan, you can host 1 website. The plan includes a free domain for 1 year, 50GB SSD storage, unmetered bandwidth, free SSL and 24/7 live chat support.
Web hosting services offer varying amounts of monthly data transfers, storage, email, and other features. Even how you pay (month-to-month payments vs. annual payments) can be radically different, too, so taking the time to plot exactly what your company needs for online success is essential. Many of these companies also offer reseller hosting services, which let you go into business for yourself, offering hosting to your own customers without requiring you to spin up your own servers.
Excellent performance, great features, and helpful tech support propel InMotion Hosting to second place in our roundup of the best web hosting services 2020. InMotion has been around since 2001, and is one of the world's largest independent web hosting companies. It offers several shared hosting plans, with prices starting at a very attractive monthly cost. 

I used godaddy for a few years but grew tired of constant price hikes not to mention how difficult it was to edit my site. My site was deleted when I canceled my subscription and I can’t use my web site name unless I want to fork over almost $200. I don’t need online ordering as I’m a small home bakery, I don’t need one email address let alone 10, I just want an online presence so customers can find me. However, I want to be sure I’m buying something I can work with easily. Any suggestions?
When it comes to server operating systems, Linux is typically the default option. Still, some services offer a choice of Linux or Windows hosting. If you have specific server-side applications that require Windows, such as SQL Server or a custom application written in .NET, then you need to make sure your web host has Windows hosting. But don't let the idea of a Linux host intimidate you. Nowadays, most web hosts offer a graphical interface or a control panel to simplify server administration and website management. Instead of typing at the command line, you'll click easily identifiable icons.
That said, not all web hosts offer email. WP Engine, for example, does not. In such instances, you must email accounts from a company other than your web host. GoDaddy, for instance, sells email packages starting at $3.49 per user, per month. That might sound like a hassle, and just one more thing to keep track of, but there are actually some webmasters who feel that separating your email hosting and web hosting services is smart. That way, one provider going offline won't completely bork your business.
Aptly named the “Best Host to Grow With,” HostGator is one of the most well-known and well-respected web hosts in the industry. Their plans include user-friendly Weebly site builder, no contract commitment, and unlimited storage, emails, and site traffic. Start with shared hosting and grow your business to dedicated-server scale, and the HostGator team will be there to help you grow every step of the way.
Toby Sembower built and hosted his first website in 1998, when the Internet was often annoyingly referred to as "the information super-highway." Toby is the first to admit that site was plain terrible. Nonetheless, it piqued his interest in the Web, and he would go on to build, own, and operate (and host externally) sites totaling 100+ million visits on a variety of subject matters. Today Toby is CEO at Digital Brands Inc., a fast-growing firm that owns and operates a number of popular web properties.

A Content Distribution Network (CDN) is a network of servers distributed geographically. The purpose of a CDN is to deliver content on the internet much faster. If a user in Toronto is trying to access your website, the closest server to them will take care of this. But someone coming to your website from Sydney, Australia, will be catered to by a server closest to them. The main host server holds your website content, and all the other servers have a cached version each.
Once you choose your provider, it's time for you to open an account with the monthly plan that fits your needs. If you still have questions about which plan is suitable for you, call its customer support staff and have them assist you through the registration process. Companies will generally charge a credit card on a monthly basis, however, some companies will also offer discounts for paying a yearly payment at once.
Many web hosting services offer so-called unlimited or unmetered service for whatever amount of bandwidth, disk storage and sites you use. It's important to understand that most terms of service actually do limit the definition of "unlimited" to what's considered reasonable use. The bottom line is simple: if you're building a pretty basic website, unlimited means you don't need to worry. But if you're trying to do something excessive (or illegal, immoral or fattening), the fine print in the terms of service will trigger, and you'll either be asked to spend more or go elsewhere.
A Content Distribution Network (CDN) is a network of servers distributed geographically. The purpose of a CDN is to deliver content on the internet much faster. If a user in Toronto is trying to access your website, the closest server to them will take care of this. But someone coming to your website from Sydney, Australia, will be catered to by a server closest to them. The main host server holds your website content, and all the other servers have a cached version each.
On the plus side, SiteGround offers free automatic daily backups, access to the Cloudflare CDN, high-performance SSDs for all plans, unlimited email accounts and integration of the free LetsEncrypt SSL certificate into sites. The company does limit bandwidth and storage, but even those who claim to offer so-called unlimited bandwidth and storage really have some limits in its terms of service.

If you're on a budget and looking for the best free web hosting service, we'd recommend Weebly. The free option comes with free SSL security and 500MB storage, plus SEO and lead capture and contact forms. As you'd expect, there are limitations that come with choosing a free option: you'll have a Weebly-branded URL and ads on your site. If you want to remove these, you'll need to bump up to a paid plan. Users can also benefit from Weebly’s range of stylish website templates.


SSDs are three times faster than the traditional HDDs (Hard Disk Drives) where data was stored in the past. Some website hosting providers still rely on those, putting their customer data at risk of getting lost, as HDDs are not just slower but also a lot less reliable. HostPapa doesn’t compromise on quality when it comes to our customers’ data and hosting experience.
Great article, Paul! Definitely one of the best reads on web hosting that I've seen. I was pleasantly surprised to see Hostinger taking the first spot. In my opinion, they fully deserve all the praise that they get. Your example with the customer support test proves that point perfectly. No hidden tricks, no downtime, no long support waits. I'm really glad I decided to give them a shot a while ago. Cheers.

If you buy multiple domain names on a regular basis, then we also encourage you to check out our Discount Domain Club. DDC gives you some of the lowest domain prices available – without waiting for a sale or offer to be sent your way. Club members can save up to 60% everyday on domain registration prices, and they get free access to our CashParking® (Premium plan), free membership to GoDaddy Auctions, and reduced pricing on our Domain Broker Service. The benefits add up quickly and make our already cheap domains even more economical.
No matter what you plan to build, TMDHosting is one of the best web hostings for your personal website. By the way, you sure do need to host your page somewhere to make it appear on the interweb. Instead of searching elsewhere, consider TMDHosting. Not only is it ridiculously cheap, the fully managed hosting rocks the latest technologies for the best performing websites out there. For your information, premium hosting starts at only $2.95 a month.
People often think that a web host is the main cause of a slow website but, this is often not the case. When picking a provider, it's important for find a hosting provider that is close to your users and has a good amount of RAM and fast CPU power. Beyond that, it's often the way the website is set up that slows it down for users. To ensure that your website speed is optimal for users you need to make sure you pay attention to the following:
Buying a cheap domain name does not limit your ability to be successful online. In fact, the hundreds of new domain extensions now available provides you with more opportunities to create a strong online presence. Choosing the right cheap domain can be a way to communicate your website’s purpose and your creativity, innovation, and even customer service to online visitors. A book club, for example, could use a .club domain name to bring members together online. Online stores might want to look into .shop, while IT firms should consider .tech domains. In short, there are NUMEROUS possibilities, and the smart selection of a cheap domain name can lead to creative marketing opportunities and strong user engagement.
HostGator offers unlimited storage and bandwidth and good support to assist you. The cheapest plan starts at $2.99/mo (with a 6-month commitment) and renews at $14.95/month or $3.98/mo (with a 36-month commitment) renewing at $9.95/month. You can host 1 website and thee plan includes generous unmetered storage and bandwidth, free SSL and a solid 45-day money-back guarantee.
ASO has this cool little tool which helps you pick the plan. By answering a few questions, they suggest you the ideal plan for your page. You can play around with different possibilities and figure out what would work best for you. However, you can always get in touch with their expert stuff for additional assistance. Together, you will do extraordinary things.
In housing terms, VPS hosting is like renting your own apartment in a larger building. You're much more isolated than in the roommate situation mentioned above; it's still possible that a neighboring apartment could causes annoyance for you, but far less likely. In web hosting terms, Site A's traffic surge won't have nearly as much impact on Site B or Site C. As you'd expect, VPS hosting costs more than shared hosting. You'll pay roughly $20 to $60 per month.
Our aim is to keep our servers clean from malware, phishing, and other malicious activities posing threat to Internet users. It does not mean that we judge before knowing you, but today's reality is that we can not predict intentions of every user who signs up. In order to prevent misuse of our services we had to apply certain limitations to free hosting accounts. In turn our servers are never blacklisted so you can always expect your email message to reach it's recipient, and Internet users to reach your website.
Almost all the services offer some sort of drag-and-drop website builder that makes it easy to drag and drop items to build your page. These are great for getting started, but they often lock you into the service. Most page builders are proprietary to the service, or don't create HTML that's portable enough to be easily moved to another service if you decide it's necessary.
The company also offers higher-end Windows and Linux servers, available with Plesk and cPanel respectively. We were very intrigued to see that the company offers low-end Atom-based dedicated servers as well as the more traditional Xeon-based machines. One great resource for those doing some basic experimentation, or site development, is that it has a free, three-month trial for one of its lightly equipped Atom servers.
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